By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith
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Extra resources for Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice
Depletion occurs in severe illness, infection and trauma. 5% and 20% solutions; currently the most expensive nonblood plasma substitute. Has been used as a colloid when providing iv fluid therapy for critically ill patients but hypoalbuminaemia in these patients usually results from increased metabolism of circulating albumin; administration does not generally result in maintained plasma albumin levels and no improvement in outcome has been found when compared with cheaper alternatives. The effect of albumin administration on mortality in critically ill patients remains controversial, although recent studies suggest mortality is not increased, except possibly in patients with traumatic brain injury.
Resistance is increased in chronic bronchitis due to airway narrowing. In emphysema the airways close because of lung parenchymal destruction. Airway resistance increases during anaesthesia; this may be caused by bronchospasm, reduction in FRC and lung volume, or by the tubes and connections of the breathing system. See also, Closing capacity; Compliance Resistance = Airways. Devices placed in the upper airway (but not into the larynx); used to: ◗ relieve airway obstruction. ◗ prevent biting and occlusion of the tracheal tube.
Alveolar gases. Normal alveolar gas partial pressures and intravascular gas tensions are shown in Table 5. g. during anaesthesia. See also, End-tidal gas sampling Alveolar gas transfer. Depends on: ◗ alveolar ventilation. 5 µm). ◗ solubility of gases in blood. ◗ cardiac output. g. CO2, and anaesthetic vapours during recovery, the same factors apply. 75 s to pass through pulmonary capillaries. 25 s; part of the time is taken for the reaction with haemoglobin. 25 s. g. carbon monoxide, is limited by diffusion between alveolus and capillary, since large volumes can be taken up by the blood once they reach it.