By William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team
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Additional info for An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics
Are numeric variables, X is a matrix and A, B, C, . . are factors. The following formulae on the left side below specify statistical models as described on the right. y~x y~1+x Both imply the same simple linear regression model of y on x. The first has an implicit intercept term, and the second an explicit one. y~0+x y ~ -1 + x y ~ x - 1 Simple linear regression of y on x through the origin (that is, without an intercept term). log(y) ~ x1 + x2 Multiple regression of the transformed variable, log(y), on x1 and x2 (with an implicit intercept term).
0 eruptions We can plot the empirical cumulative distribution function by using the function ecdf. points=FALSE, verticals=TRUE) This distribution is obviously far from any standard distribution. How about the right-hand mode, say eruptions of longer than 3 minutes? Let us fit a normal distribution and overlay the fitted CDF. 0 x Quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots can help us examine this more carefully. par(pty="s") # arrange for a square figure region qqnorm(long); qqline(long) Chapter 8: Probability distributions 36 which shows a reasonable fit but a shorter right tail than one would expect from a normal distribution.
Even an assignment is an expression whose result is the value assigned, and it may be used wherever any expression may be used; in particular multiple assignments are possible. ; expr_m }, in which case the value of the group is the result of the last expression in the group evaluated. Since such a group is also an expression it may, for example, be itself included in parentheses and used a part of an even larger expression, and so on. 1 Conditional execution: if statements The language has available a conditional construction of the form > if (expr_1 ) expr_2 else expr_3 where expr 1 must evaluate to a single logical value and the result of the entire expression is then evident.