Download Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph by A. B. Bosworth PDF

By A. B. Bosworth

During this learn, Bosworth appears to be like at Alexander the Great's actions in crucial Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photograph of bloodbath and repression such as the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and proposal of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander via historians of antiquity. The publication is directed to experts and normal readers alike.

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On Hieronymus as the source of the information see Hornblower, Hieronymus 190-3. 78 Diod. 19. 16. 1. Cf. R. H. Simpson, Historia 6 (1957) 504-5; Hornblower, Hieronymus 125-6. 28 The Shield of Achilles native irregulars. It was sixteen months before they were finally overrun by direct assault. These men were dangerous and none of them more than Alexander himself. He was no rearguard general. Indeed it could almost be said that where two or three were gathered in his name, there was he in the midst of them.

On the other hand the Macedonian cavalry, concentrated in a single mass, launched destructive forays against the rear of the Indian line. 50 The carnage increased as the mahouts were killed, and the elephants lost direction. Finally they gave up. Arrian has a vivid and immeasurably pathetic picture of them retreating slowly into their line, like warships backing water, no longer charging but emitting a hideous high-pitched squeal. Fortunately there is no modern evidence of elephant behaviour under such duress, and the description cannot be controlled.

5. 26-32 (pitched battles). The subsequent campaign in Thrace was notable for its lack of military action (cf. Xen. Anab. 7. 7. 5-9). 72 The Shield of Achilles 27 mittedly periods when military action was minimal, the first nine months of 331 and the last eighteen months of his life. But they are more than countered by years on end of almost uninterrupted combat. In 334 the pitched battle of the Granicus was followed by extended sieges at Miletus and (notably) Halicarnassus, and the campaign of Issus around November 333 was followed by seven months of siege activity at Tyre and two months at Gaza.

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