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By Cai Hua

The Na of China, farmers within the Himalayan zone, dwell with out the establishment of marriage. Na brothers and sisters stay jointly their complete lives, sharing family tasks and elevating the women's teenagers. as the Na, like any cultures, limit incest, they perform a process of occasionally furtive, occasionally conspicuous night encounters on the woman's domestic. The woman's partners--she usually has greater than one--bear no fiscal accountability for her or her youngsters, and "fathers," until they resemble their childrens, stay unidentifiable.This lucid ethnographic examine indicates how a society can functionality with no husbands or fathers. It sheds mild on marriage and kinship, in addition to on the location of girls, the mandatory stipulations for the purchase of identification, and the influence of a communist nation on a society that it considers backward.

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For example, the trip between Yongning and Lijiang took at least ten days, since one could only get there on foot. The postal service, set up in 1 970, barely functions. Stamps are not always available. When you make a telephone call from Yongning to the city of Ninglang, it is almost impossible to hear the person you are calling, who, in turn, understands next to noth­ ing of what you are saying. Communication is even more difficult between Yongning and the town of Kunming, the county seat of Yunnan Province.

They acquired significant amounts of land and livestock. There were even some poor individuals who, instead of turning them­ selves over to the chiefs, became serfs in these newly rich lianees. For example: 1. The male members of the Lather lianee were serfs. At the beginning of the century, the lianee was very poor. However, over the course of three decades, through the caravan transports, trad­ ing in other regions, and Yongning usury, it became very rich and ended up owning fifty horses and mules and 30,000 bankai.

The western group uses donba writ­ ing, pictography, and another written form called aeba, which is phonetic. But only the shamans know how to use these two writ­ ten forms. The eastern groups are without the written word. Official Iden tification In 1958, the central government organized investigations to iden­ tify the various ethnic groups. The provincial authorities were in charge of identifying their local inhabitants. In Yunnan, since the Naxi constituted the largest group, the central government autho­ rized their name as that of the three groups in Yunnan.

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