By Rene De La Pedraja
A premiere authority has written the 1st entire reference in regards to the U.S. service provider Marine and American delivery from the advent of steamships to trendy diesel containerships--showing the impression of politics, economics, and know-how on maritime historical past over the last centuries. Over 500 entries describe humans, deepest businesses, company and hard work teams, engineering and technological advancements, executive organizations, phrases, key legislation, landmark instances, concerns, occasions, and ships of word. brief lists of references for additional studying accompany those entries. Appendices contain a chronology, diagrams of presidency businesses, and lists of industrial and exertions teams by means of founding dates. An strangely huge index lends itself to the various examine pursuits of scholars, lecturers, and execs in maritime and monetary heritage, business-labor-government kinfolk, and army studies.
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Extra resources for A Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Merchant Marine and Shipping Industry: Since the Introduction of Steam
In 1917 its owner, Hubbard F. Alexander,* sent ships as far as Singapore to test the market, and in 1918 he began regular sailings; the large profits convinced him to charter* additional ships from private companies for the transpacific service. The Shipping Board* now stepped into the picture and in late 1918 offered government-owned ships under incredibly favorable terms, so that the Admiral Line did not renew its private charters as they expired and instead by the spring of 1920 was operating seventeen government-owned vessels.
S. companies that owned ships registered under flags of convenience created the American Committee for Flags of Necessity. S. interests, became the president, and he hired a top-level legal and lobbying staff to defend vigorously the companies. Labor staged boycotts against ships flying flags of convenience beginning in December 1958, and in the initial years management failed to obtain injunctions against union picketing. In the Peninsular and Occidental case, the National Labor Relations Board ruled that unions had the right to organize crewmen aboard flags-of-convenience ships, a decision it upheld and extended in the West India Fruit case of May 1960.
The question of what to do with the fleet vexed the stockholders, who reached the conclusion that the only hope left was to shift to foreign flags. S. flag, the stockholders decided to bring in as an investor the billionaire Daniel Ludwig,* whose experience with foreign-flag operations was renowned. Ludwig decided to use the company for his own plans, and in 1955, after a bitter takeover battle, he gained full control and sold off the ships and most of the assets of American-Hawaiian, whose steamship career really ended at this point.