Download 32.Lightwave Technology by John G. Webster (Editor) PDF

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Metal-Clad Waveguides The three-layer structure shown in Fig. 2(a) becomes a metal-clad waveguide, when metal is employed as the cover material. At the optical frequency, the refractive index of metal is a complex number with a predominant negative imaginary part. 04. Because of the complex nature of the refractive index, optical waves are attenuated when penetrating into the metal cover. The propagation constant for the guided mode is therefore also a complex number, where the real part is the phase constant and the (negative) imaginary part is the attenuation constant.

Accurate numerical data calculated from a finite element method (41) are used as the references. Figure 11 shows clearly that the effective-index method with built-in perturbation correction is significantly more accurate than Marcatili’s method and the conventional effective-index method, and slightly more accurate than Marcatili’s method with perturbation correction. More numerical data for rectangularcore waveguides can be found in references 39 and 40. A rectangular-core waveguide can be designed to support only a number of Em1 modes by using a wide thin core.

When the principal axes of the materials that form the waveguide are arbitrarily oriented, TE and TM modes do not normally exist. The modes are, in general, hybrid in nature and it is a tedious exercise to find them (21). Fortunately, in most practical applications, the principal axes of the materials are aligned with the waveguide axes. In such special cases, the guided modes can still be classified as TE and TM modes and the simple zig-zag wave model described earlier can be extended to obtain the dispersion relation (22).

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